Through IARC access to many Fermilab facilities would be possible. These facilities are further detailed below, but include: conventional and superconducting magnet testing and assembly facilities, SRF cavity assembly, processing and test facilities, access to various particle beams, superconducting cabling manufacturing and testing, particle detector manufacturing and development and high performance computing resources.
1) Beam Test Facilities:
- NML Pulsed SRF Facility A RF unit test facility originally tasked with supporting the International Linear Collider R&D program and an important test facility for the PIP-II pulsed linac. Currently this facility consists of a 40 MeV photo-injector and a facility to allow cold test of single 1300 Mhz cryomodule. This facility has been proposed as the basis of a world class Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) program. (see ASTA below)
- Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA): The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6 ILC/PX 1300 MHz cryomodules allowing tests of full PIP-II (and ILC ) RF units with nominal beam currents and pulse structures. An RF unit for PIP-II (or ILC) consists of a 10 MW klystron, modulator, and a RF power distribution system mated to 3 -4 cryomodules each containing eight 1300 MHz cavities. Addition beam lines, dumps, and test areas will support a user facility for a world class advanced accelerator research program with SRF linacs. ASTA will provide intense electron beams from 50 to 800 MeV/c energies. A small storage ring IOTA with the capability of storing either electrons or protons is also planned to explore new techniques to store intense beams. ASTA will accommodate a broad range of beam-based experiments to study fundamental limitations to beam intensity and to develop transformative approaches to particle-beam generation, acceleration and manipulation which cannot be done elsewhere. For more information see: http://apc.fnal.gov/programs2/ASTA_TEMP/index.shtml
- The MuCool Test Area (MTA) is used for R&D on ionization cooling components (mostly RF cavities) for the Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). The facility includes an experimental hall with radiation shielding, a surface building housing a liquid helium cryogenic plant and a manifold room for high pressure gas. Research infrastructure in the hall includes 400-MeV high-intensity H- beam from the Fermilab Linac, 201 & 805 MHz RF power, a large-bore solenoid magnet, liquid helium and nitrogen, vacuum system and instrumentation, high pressure gas supply lines, hydrogen safety systems, a class-100 clean room, radiation detectors and optical diagnostics. The available beam rate is 1 pulse per minute. A high-power circulator and switch serve two waveguide branches in the hall for 805-MHz RF. Additional information can be found at http://mice.iit.edu/mta/.
- The Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) is a high energy beam facility devoted to Detector R&D. The facility consists of two versatile beamlines (MTest and MCenter) in which users can test equipment or detectors. The MTest primary beamline consists of a beam of high energy protons (120 GeV) at moderate intensities (~1-300 kHz). This beam can also be targeted to create secondary, or even tertiary particle beams of energies down to below 1 GeV, consisting of pions, muons, and/or electrons. The MCenter beamline is very similar to the MTest beamline but is currently undergoing reconstruction. Further details can be found at http://www-ppd.fnal.gov/FTBF/.
- The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells) and material science investigations. NTF is an active radiotherapy facility for cancer therapy, however, therapy is only carried out three days per week. This allows the beam to be offered for other uses. The beam has the following properties: broad energy spectrum with a maximum energy of 66 MeV, neutron flux of 2 x 108 neutrons/cm2/sec but only ~35% of this on an hourly basis, maximum irradiation area of approximately 24 cm x 24 cm, pulsed beam, 15 Hz, pulse length up to 62 μsec, proportionally fewer neutrons for shorter pulse lengths, and HV, BNC signal, and Triax signal/HV patches are available.
- PIP-II Injector Experiment (PXIE): PXIE is the integrated systems test for the PIP-II frontend. It is expected to accelerate a 1-mA CW beam up to 30 MeV. Integrated systems test goals include 1 mA average current with 80% bunch-by-bunch chopping of beam delivered from the RFQ and efficient acceleration with minimal emittance dilution through at least 15 MeV. For more information see: http://www-bdnew.fnal.gov/pxie/
2) CryoModule Test Facility:
- CMTF: Able to test complete SRF cryomodules at cryogenic operating temperatures and with RF Power. CMTF will house the PIP-II Injector Experiment allowing test of 162 MHz Half Wave Resonator and 325 MHz Single Spoke Resonator cryomodules with beam. Additional capability is provided with a cryomodule test stand that will test cryomodules at 650 and 1300 Mhz. The facility is equipped with two large cryogenic refrigerators and can easily be adapted for other cryomodule or cryogenic testing activities.
3) Super Conducting and Conventional Magnets Test & Mapping Facilities:
- Vertical Magnet Test Facility: Accommodate a device up to 3.85 m long, 0.61 m diameter, and 14,400 lbs. Configured for 5 psig sub-cooled liquid helium bath cooling with a minimum temperature 1.8 K. Multiple top plate configurations with vapor-cooled current leads. The power system is capable of delivering up to 30 kA, 30 Volts.
- Horizontal Test Stand 4: Accommodates cryostatted superconducting magnets, up to 12 m long, 0.85 m diameter in a 5 psig sub-cooled liquid helium bath with a minimum temperature 1.8 K and a maximum current 15 kA.
- Horizontal Test Stands 2 and 6: Accommodates cryostatted superconducting magnets up to 17 m long, 0.6 m diameter with 7 psig sub-cooled liquid and a forced flow up to 30 g/s. The maximum current available is 5 kA.
- Test Stand 3 Cryostat: Supports the testing of bare superconducting magnets and Resistive Temperature Devices calibration. The maximum size of the device under test may be 0.4m diameter, 0.8 m height, 800 lbs. weight. The system is configured for 4.5K saturated bath cooling with a maximum current available of 10 kA (however the installed current leads support only 0.5 KA at the moment).
- Cryogenic System: Helium refrigerator: 1,500 watts at 4.5K or 300 l/hour liquefaction capacity.
4) Solenoid Testing Facility:
Current Configuration: Accommodate a device under test up to 2.8 m diameter, 0.7 m height and 15,000 lbs. weight. Up to 10 g/s, 4.5 K helium flow. Up to 250 A test current.
5) Magnet Assembly Facilities:
Facilities for the assembly of conventional and superconducting magnets equipped with multiple tools listed below.
IB2 – Conventional Magnet Facilities:
- ~25’ long vacuum oven for vacuum-based epoxy or RTV application/filling or whole magnet vacuum drying.
- 30’ Wisconsin oven primarily used for epoxy curing.
- 9’ Diameter large winding table on ~30’ by 30’ raised platform with 9’ tensioner for coil winding. Also several smaller “portable” winding tools tables and tensioners.
- Two 20’ screw stackers (one in storage), one 14’ screw stacker and two 20’ hydraulic stackers (one in storage) for stacking and pressing of laminations primarily for fabricating magnet cores.
- Ferrite brick magnetization system including a 42” dipole magnet, PEI 150/5 power supply and brick measurement system to magnetize ferrite bricks on the order of 6”x2”x1” or smaller.
- Cable and wedge insulation wrapping line.
IB3 Superconducting Magnet Facilities
- Small rotary winding table; up to 1m long coils.
- Large rotary winding table; up to 4m long coils.
- Long Selva winding station; up to 6m long coils in current configuration.
- Short curing press; up to 2m long coils.
- Long curing press; up to 9m long coils
- Reaction furnace, 6m long.
- Vertical quadrupole collaring press 6.7 m deep.
- Horizontal collar press, 6m long, in storage.
- Shell welding press 6.4m long and another generic press 2m long.
- Warm magnetic measuring station, 6m long, in storage.
- Superconducting Rutherford Cabling machine.
6) Superconducting Strand and Cable Preparation and Test Facilities:
- Superconducting Cable Preparation: Preparation of round (Litz) and rectangular (Rutherford) cable designs based on conventional conductors (copper, silver, aluminum wire); Nb-Ti superconducting composite cables; Nb3Sn composite superconducting cables and Bi-2212 superconducting cables. Cables with structural materials, cores, insulation, keystoned and trapezoidal geometries can be produced.
- Superconducting Strand Manufacturing R&D: SC strands and cables can undergo reaction and heat treatment in four ovens suitable for reaction of samples up to 2 m length on barrels, reactions up to 1200 °C in high-purity argon or oxygen (for Bi-2212). Up to 20 specimens can be reacted at one time on 25 mm barrels each 60 mm long. A coil reaction oven for spools up to 2 m diameter or small solenoids 2 m in length, up to 1250 °C in air or high-purity argon is also available.
- Superconducting Strand Test Facilities: 4 test stations ranging up to 15 T at 4.2 K and 17 T at 1.8 K solenoid. Some with variable-temperature insert for short sample critical current tests and other tests. 1.5 to 40 K in He gas, or operation at 4.2 K or 77 K in cryogens. Solenoid apertures range in size from 64 mm to 250 mm bore. Power supplies with max power of 1875 to 2400 A are available with DAQ for critical current measurements. Also available are a Rogowski coil for flux-transformer measurements, integration magnetometry and a Walters’ spring apparatus.
7) Superconducting Cavity Test Facility:
- Vertical Test Cryostats: VTS-1 cryostat supports a device under test up to 2.74 m long, 0.6 m diameter, and 1,400 lbs. weight. VTS-2 and VTS-3 cryostats support a device under test up to 3.6 m long, 0.86 m diameter, and 2,400 lbs. weight. The cryostats are configured to operate with a saturated helium bath cooling, 1.4 K minimum temperature and maximum steady power dissipation of 250 W at 2.0K. The VTS cryostats are magnetically shielded and include a radiation shield lid. They are equipped with RF power systems, DAQ Systems, Thermometry, and the Cryostat Control System. Presently the RF power system supports frequencies of 325 MHz, 650 MHz, and 1.3 GHz.
- Dressed Cavity Test Facility (MDB): Three test stands for fully dressed SRF cavities at temperatures down to 2 K with pulsed or CW RF. High gradient 1300 MHz cavities with pulsed RF, CW . 325 MHz spoke resonators with CW or pulsed RF. CW test of 650 MHz elliptical cavities (under construction). 4 Shielded reconfigurable enclosures. 3 Ganged cryogenic refrigerators each capable of 600 W at 4 K. Large vacuum pump provides in excess of 100 W at 2 K.
8) Superconducting RF Cavity Manufacturing, Inspection and Process R&D Facilities:
- Cavity Processing: Complete facilities for processing SRF cavities, both under tightly controlled R&D conditions and under mass production conditions, are available. Specifically, single and multi-cell cavities from ~100 MHz to 10 GHzcan undergo chemical polishing, electropolishing, and mechanical polishing.Cavity de-gassing ovens for 300 MHz cavities or higher frequency operate at up to 1000 °C under high vacuum. High-pressure rinsing with ultra-pure water and class 10 clean rooms for cavity assembly are also available. There is also an industrial laser system for local defect repair, and a replica system for diagnosis of cavity topographical features.
- Cavity Inspection: There are two automated optical inspection stands, used for inspection of 1.3GHz and 650MHz elliptical cavities, with the resolution of ~10 micrometers. This resolution allows for identification of defects from ~50 micrometers and higher. There is also a manual system, based on a telescope, with ~2 micrometer resolution.
- Argonne-Fermilab Cavity Processing Facility: Class 10 clean room for assembly; 2 EP/BCP tools for chemical surface processing of SRF cavities; 2 high pressure rinse systems; Ultra-clean water system; Trained Fermilab and ANL staff; Additional SRF cavity and cryomodule design, fabrication, and test capability is available at ANL.
9) SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly:
Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is located at MP9 and is used to perform RF cavity string assembly. The MP9 cleanroom is 28.8 m long and 7.2 m wide. A second 14.5 m long and 9 meter wide cleanroom located in IB4 is dedicated to SRF cavity processing research. A third cleanroom facility located at Argonne is jointly operated by ANL and FNAL and is part of the 200 m2 SRF production cavity processing facility. In addition to the clean rooms Fermilab has large fixtures, extensive tooling and Ti welding enclosures for Cryomodule assembly.
10) Materials structure and property characterization facilities
- SEM - Scanning electron microscopy: JEOL model 4200 SEM with 5-axis stage, can accommodate specimens up to 25 mm x 25 mm x 6 mm.
- EDS - Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy: Oxford EDS system for performing chemical analyses.
- EBSD - Electron backscattered electron diffraction: Oxford system for detecting crystallographic orientation and deformation.
- Laser Confocal Scanning Microscope - Keyence VK9700 microscope system for no-contact analysis of topographical features to 10 nm resolution and angles up to 80 degrees from horizontal over large areas (8 cm x 8 cm).
- Stylus Profilometer - measurement of surface roughness and topographical features by contact method over areas up to 1 cm x 1 cm.
- FTIR - Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy(with ATR): apparatus for identifying the chemical species by bonding energies.
- DSC - Differential scanning calorimeter: apparatus for analyzing thermodynamics and kinetics of phase reactions in materials .
- TGA - Thermogravimetric analysis: apparatus for analyzing chemical reactions due to mass changes and release of gaseous by-products.
- Mechanical Property Testing Facility - Equipment is available for tensile testing according to ASTM E-8 for up to 30 cm length and 1 cm2 cross-section. Wire pieces and composite samples can also be accommodated. Hardness measurements of centimeter-scale samples, and portable hardness measurement of large pieces. Bend and impact testing to 10 mm thickness.
11) Machine Shop Facilities:
Projects at IARC can benefit from Fermilab's experienced machinists, welders, and extensive on-site equipment. Equipment includes conventional and CNC mills, lathes, wire EDM and water jet, with accuracies of a tenth of a mil. High accuracy milling size capacity up to 3x7x2 feet and 4000 lbs, lower accuracy up to 10x25x6 feet and 10k+ lbs. Diverse welding capabilities of most metals.
12) Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control
Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including “scanning” probes, optical comparators, and a laser tracker with accuracies as small as tenths of a mil are available. CMM size capacity up to 48 x 120 x 40 inches, laser tracker size capacity up to 10’s of meters. Ability to quickly analyze most metals and alloys using an x-ray fluorescence alloy analyzer. Ability to produce B-H curves using a hysteresis graph.
13) Detector R&D and Production Facilities
Facilities for alignment & metrology, detector support, detector production (Lab 3), machine development & maintenance, microbonding, microdetector assembly, precision metrology, scintillation, detector development (SiDet), and thin film work. Further details can be found at http://www-ppd.fnal.gov/tcoffice-w/.
14) SciDAC Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (COMPASS)
Numerical modeling and simulation provide a path for the advancement of accelerator science and technology, as it is essential for both the design process and optimal operation of accelerators and accelerator components. In order to achieve accurate results, simulations must include both independent particle and collective effects as well as an accurate description of the electromagnetic and mechanical properties of the accelerator components. Such simulations are computationally-intensive and thus require high performance computing (HPC) capable numerical tools. Fermilab supports a broad and productive program in computational simulation and modeling for existing and future accelerators and accelerator technologies through the DOE SciDAC Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (COMPASS). Through its leadership and participation in ComPASS, Fermilab has developed or has expertise in utilizing HPC codes capable of modeling every aspect of an accelerator system (dynamics, electromagnetic and mechanical properties) in an integrated environment. Such capabilities, coupled to Fermilab’s advanced infrastructure in Superconducting RD technology and diverse accelerator facilities, could provide a complete environment for the development of new technologies and applications for science, medicine, or industrial applications. In addition, Fermilab has expertise in utilization of HPC systems and development in new computing environments, such as GPU enhanced architectures, thus covering all aspects of the design, building, and testing cycle of R&D.